The second key protein of SARS-CoV-2 infection, CD147
SARS-COV-2 spreads all over the world and seriously threatens human health. Previously, we introduced ACE2, the first key protein of covid-19 infection. Now, we will introduce another key protein, CD147.
CD147, also known as Basigin or EMMPRIN, is a transmembrane glycoprotein that belongs to the immunoglobulin superfamily. CD147 is highly expressed in various tumor cells and tissues, and promotes tumor invasion and metastasis by inducing the secretion of matrix metalloproteinases. Studies show that CD147 is also related to plasmodium invasion and virus infection.
How does CD147 help SARS-COV-2 infect host cells?
1. Structure of coronavirus
Coronavirus has four structural proteins, including: E, M, N and S proteins. The structure is as follows:
Figure 1. Coronavirus structure map, image source: med.sina.com
2. CD147, a new way for SARS-COV-2 to infect host cells
The infectivity of coronavirus mainly depends on S protein, which can bind to the membrane receptor on the host cell membrane. Then mediate the fusion of virus and cell membrane. In addition to ACE2, recently, the research team of Chen Zhinan conducted surface plasmon resonance analysis and supplemented with a competitive inhibition experiment (anti-CD147 antibody can competitively inhibit the binding of S protein and CD147), and found that CD147 can be used as another new potential way for SARS-CoV-2 to invade the host cell. Moreover, the ability of the virus to invade the host cell is enhanced, after S protein binds to CD147. It can be concluded that S protein of SARS-CoV-2 mediates virus invasion by binding to CD147 on the host cell.
The significance of the discovery of CD147 in finding COVID-19 therapeutic agents
Currently, there is no effective way of treatment on COVID-19. The discovery of the important role of CD147 in promoting virus invasion into host cells has opened a new way for the development of antiviral drugs.
ACE2 is the first key protein of SARS-CoV-2 infection, but because it is widely distributed in various tissues, such as: heart, lung, kidney, testis, etc., and plays an important role in controlling blood pressure, lung injury, preventing heart failure and kidney injury. Therefore, if ACE2 is used as a therapeutic target, it may cause serious side effects. And studies have shown that because ACE2 is widely distributed in testis, COVID-19 can affect male reproductive function. So, the study of CD147 as a therapeutic target may be more promising.
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Part of data for anti-CD147 antibody are as follows:
Figure 2. FCM detection data. Catalog No.: PAB540Hu01. Sample: Hela cells.
Figure 3. IHC detection data. Catalog No.: PAB540Mu01. Sample: Mouse liver.
Figure 4. WB detection data. Catalog No.: PAB540Ra01. Sample: Rat liver.