Insulin (INS)

Insulin is a polypeptide hormone originating in the beta cells of the pancreas and serving as a principal regulator for the storage and production of carbohydrates. Its secretion is normally stimulated by increases in the amount of glucose in circulation. This leads to higher insulin levels and more rapid tissueassimilation of glucose followed by a decline in the insulin level as the glucose level subsides. In a number of conditions, notably insulinoma and diabetes, this relationship is impaired. Insulin tends to circulate at inappropriately high levels in patients with insulin-secreting pancreatic tumors; such tumors can thus be a cause of hypoglycemia. Accordingly, insulin immunoassays used sometimes in connection with provocative doses of tolbutamide or calcium play an essential role in the identification (and localization) of insulinomas.

Organism species: Homo sapiens (Human)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Hu01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
NPA448Hu01 Native Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
Antibodies PAA448Hu01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
MAA448Hu22 Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
LAA448Hu71 Biotin-Linked Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC.
LAA448Hu81 FITC-Linked Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IF.
PAA448Hu02 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Hu ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.
CCA448Hu CLIA Kit for Insulin (INS) Chemiluminescent immunoassay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Mus musculus (Mouse)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Mu01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
RPA448Mu02 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
APA448Mu01 Active Insulin (INS) Cell culture; Activity Assays.
Antibodies PAA448Mu01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
PAA448Mu02 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Mu ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Rattus norvegicus (Rat)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Ra01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
NPA448Ra01 Native Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
Antibodies PAA448Ra01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
MAA448Ra21 Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Ra ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.
CCA448Ra CLIA Kit for Insulin (INS) Chemiluminescent immunoassay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Cavia (Guinea pig )

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Gu01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
CPA448Gu21 OVA Conjugated Insulin (INS) Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
Antibodies PAA448Gu01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
MAA448Gu21 Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
PAA448Gu08 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Gu ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Oryctolagus cuniculus (Rabbit)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Rb01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
Antibodies PAA448Rb51 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Rb ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Rhesus monkey (Simian)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins n/a Recombinant Insulin (INS) Recombinant Protein Customized Service Offer
Antibodies PAA448Si01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Si ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Canis familiaris; Canine (Dog)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins n/a Recombinant Insulin (INS) Recombinant Protein Customized Service Offer
Antibodies PAA448Ca01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits SEA448Ca ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.
CEA448Ca ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Sus scrofa; Porcine (Pig)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Po01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
RPA448Po02 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
CPA448Po21 OVA Conjugated Insulin (INS) Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
Antibodies PAA448Po01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
PAA448Po02 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Po ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Bos taurus; Bovine (Cattle)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins RPA448Bo01 Recombinant Insulin (INS) Positive Control; Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
CPA448Bo21 OVA Conjugated Insulin (INS) Immunogen; SDS-PAGE; WB.
APA448Bo01 Active Insulin (INS) Cell culture; Activity Assays.
Antibodies PAA448Bo01 Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
LAA448Bo71 Biotin-Linked Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC.
MAA448Bo21 Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) WB; IHC; ICC; IP.
Assay Kits CEA448Bo ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.

Organism species: Capra hircus; Caprine (Goat)

CATALOG NO. PRODUCT NAME APPLICATIONS
Proteins n/a Recombinant Insulin (INS) Recombinant Protein Customized Service Offer
Antibodies n/a Monoclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) Monoclonal Antibody Customized Service Offer
n/a Polyclonal Antibody to Insulin (INS) Polyclonal Antibody Customized Service Offer
Assay Kits CEA448Cp ELISA Kit for Insulin (INS) Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for Antigen Detection.
  1. "Sequence of the human insulin gene."Nature 284:26-32(1980) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  2. "Genetic variation in the human insulin gene."Science 209:612-615(1980) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  3. "Nucleotide sequence of a cDNA clone encoding human preproinsulin."Nature 282:525-527(1979) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  4. "Nucleotide sequence of human preproinsulin complementary DNA."Science 208:57-59(1980) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  5. "Susceptibility to insulin dependent diabetes mellitus maps to a 4.1 kb segment of DNA spanning the insulin gene and associated VNTR."Nat. Genet. 4:305-310(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  6. "Insulinomas and expression of an insulin splice variant."Lancet 363:363-367(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  7. "Global haplotype diversity in the human insulin gene region."Genome Res. 13:2101-2111(2003) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  8. "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC)."Genome Res. 14:2121-2127(2004) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  9. "Amino-acid sequence of human insulin."Nature 187:483-485(1960) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  10. "Studies on human proinsulin. Isolation and amino acid sequence of the human pancreatic C-peptide."J. Biol. Chem. 246:1375-1386(1971) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  11. "The amino acid sequence of the C-peptide of human proinsulin."Eur. J. Biochem. 20:190-199(1971) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  12. "Total synthesis of human insulin under directed formation of the disulfide bonds."Helv. Chim. Acta 57:2617-2621(1974) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  13. "Studies on polypeptides, IV. The synthesis of C-peptide of human proinsulin."Hoppe-Seyler's Z. Physiol. Chem. 354:659-672(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  14. "Synthesis of peptides with the properties of human proinsulin C peptides (hC peptide). 3. Synthesis of the sequences 14-17 and 9-13 of human proinsulin C peptides."Chem. Ber. 106:199-205(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  15. "Synthesis of peptides with the properties of human proinsulin C peptides (hC peptide). I. Scheme for the synthesis and preparation of the sequence 28-31 of human proinsulin C peptide."Chem. Ber. 106:188-192(1973) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  16. "Studies on mutant human insulin genes: identification and sequence analysis of a gene encoding [SerB24]insulin."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:6366-6370(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  17. "Identification of a mutant human insulin predicted to contain a serine-for-phenylalanine substitution."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 80:7390-7394(1983) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  18. "A mutation in the B chain coding region is associated with impaired proinsulin conversion in a family with hyperproinsulinemia."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 84:2194-2197(1987) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  19. "Structurally abnormal insulin in a diabetic patient. Characterization of the mutant insulin A3 (Val-->Leu) isolated from the pancreas."J. Clin. Invest. 78:1666-1672(1986) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  20. "Two unrelated patients with familial hyperproinsulinemia due to a mutation substituting histidine for arginine at position 65 in the proinsulin molecule: identification of the mutation by direct sequencing of genomic deoxyribonucleic acid amplified by polymerase chain reaction."J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 71:164-169(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  21. "Posttranslational cleavage of proinsulin is blocked by a point mutation in familial hyperproinsulinemia."J. Clin. Invest. 76:378-380(1985) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  22. "A novel point mutation in the human insulin gene giving rise to hyperproinsulinemia (proinsulin Kyoto)."J. Clin. Invest. 89:1902-1907(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  23. "Toward the solution structure of human insulin: sequential 2D 1H NMR assignment of a des-pentapeptide analogue and comparison with crystal structure."Biochemistry 29:10545-10555(1990) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  24. "Comparative 2D NMR studies of human insulin and des-pentapeptide insulin: sequential resonance assignment and implications for protein dynamics and receptor recognition."Biochemistry 30:5505-5515(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  25. "Two-dimensional NMR studies of Des-(B26-B30)-insulin: sequence-specific resonance assignments and effects of solvent composition."Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1078:101-110(1991) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  26. "Three-dimensional solution structure of an insulin dimer. A study of the B9(Asp) mutant of human insulin using nuclear magnetic resonance, distance geometry and restrained molecular dynamics."J. Mol. Biol. 227:1146-1163(1992) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  27. "Paradoxical structure and function in a mutant human insulin associated with diabetes mellitus."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 90:582-586(1993) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  28. "Solution structures of the R6 human insulin hexamer."Biochemistry 36:9409-9422(1997) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  29. "Insulin gene mutations as a cause of permanent neonatal diabetes."Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 104:15040-15044(2007) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  30. "Insulin mutation screening in 1,044 patients with diabetes: mutations in the INS gene are a common cause of neonatal diabetes but a rare cause of diabetes diagnosed in childhood or adulthood."Diabetes 57:1034-1042(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  31. "Mutations in the insulin gene can cause MODY and autoantibody-negative type 1 diabetes."Diabetes 57:1131-1135(2008) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]
  32. "Further evidence that mutations in INS can be a rare cause of Maturity-Onset Diabetes of the Young (MODY)."BMC Med. Genet. 11:42-42(2010) [PubMed] [Europe PMC] [Abstract]